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Navigating Internal Investigations for Compliance: Essential Guidance for UAE Multinational Companies

July 31, 2023

Comprehending the Importance of Internal Investigations

Internal investigations serve as a crucial aspect of a company’s overall compliance program. These investigations are essential for identifying potential misconduct, mitigating the risk of legal and regulatory penalties, protecting the company’s reputation, and ensuring an ethical corporate culture. The repercussions of non-compliance are not limited to penalties alone; they can also result in reputational damage, which could significantly affect a corporation’s bottom line and relationship with stakeholders.

Extension of US and EU Compliance Requirements to UAE-Based Companies

While operating within a global business environment, UAE-based multinational companies are not only subject to local laws but often find themselves needing to comply with international laws and standards. Particularly, US and EU regulations can extend to the activities of such companies, irrespective of their geographical location. These compliance obligations come into play due to the extraterritorial scope of certain laws.

US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): The FCPA has a broad reach and can apply to corrupt practices committed by foreign firms and persons if they are directly or indirectly involved in any act in furtherance of such corrupt practice in the US. Thus, a UAE-based multinational with business ties to the US may fall under the FCPA’s purview. The law prohibits bribery of foreign officials for obtaining or retaining business and requires companies to maintain accurate books and records.

UK Bribery Act: Similar to the FCPA, the UK Bribery Act extends beyond the UK’s borders and applies to any entity incorporated in the UK or conducting a part of its business there. It’s wider in scope than the FCPA as it does not limit its application to bribery of public officials but covers bribery in the private sector as well.

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): The GDPR represents the most comprehensive legal framework for data protection globally. It applies to organizations within the EU and those outside the EU who offer goods or services to, or monitor the behavior of, EU data subjects. Consequently, if a UAE-based company processes data of EU citizens or residents, it needs to comply with the GDPR.

US Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX): The SOX, designed to protect investors from fraudulent financial reporting by corporations, applies to all public companies in the US and international companies that have registered equity or debt securities with the US Securities and Exchange Commission. If a UAE company falls under this category, it must ensure its reporting mechanisms adhere to the SOX requirements.

Navigating these international compliance obligations can be a daunting task for UAE-based multinationals. Each of these laws has distinct requirements that can significantly impact the company’s operations, financial reporting, and data management practices. The penalties for non-compliance can be severe, including hefty fines and potential criminal charges against the company and its officers. Consequently, seeking professional legal advice and investing in a robust, holistic compliance program are crucial for companies to successfully navigate these complex regulatory landscapes.

The Procedure of Internal Investigations

An effective internal investigation often commences with a thorough review of the allegation or concern at hand. The appointment of a skilled investigation team, usually comprising legal, human resources, and subject-matter experts, is critical. Clear communication of the investigation’s scope, purpose, and procedure to all involved parties is also paramount to ensure transparency and cooperation.

Gathering evidence in a lawful, ethical, and systematic manner is a significant step in the process. It typically involves document reviews, interviews, and sometimes digital forensics. The process must respect employee rights and privacy laws, further underscoring the importance of having legal guidance during investigations.

Upon concluding the investigation, findings should be documented in a detailed report, laying the groundwork for appropriate remedial actions. Whether these actions involve changes to internal controls, disciplinary measures, or self-reporting to regulatory authorities, they should be executed decisively and promptly to enhance compliance and prevent future misconduct.

The Indispensability of Legal Advice for Compliance

In the face of growing regulatory complexities, seeking professional legal advice has become imperative for UAE multinational companies. Legal professionals can assist in determining the scope of the investigation, ensuring legal and procedural compliance, and maintaining privilege where possible. They provide valuable insights into the changing legal landscapes and help navigate the potentially treacherous terrain of international law.

In Conclusion

As global business becomes more intertwined and the digital era continues to evolve, internal investigations have become an essential tool for maintaining effective compliance within multinational corporations, especially those based in the UAE. With the expanded reach of US and EU compliance requirements, these corporations are required to navigate an increasingly complex legal landscape with meticulous precision. Thorough internal investigations and adherence to international laws such as the FCPA, UK Bribery Act, GDPR, and SOX are not only crucial for legal compliance but also pivotal in avoiding reputational damage, fostering an ethical corporate culture, and ensuring sustainable growth.

Moreover, given the intricate nature of these regulations and the severe consequences of non-compliance, professional legal advice has evolved into a non-negotiable element of the compliance process. Legal experts offer vital guidance throughout internal investigations, assist in deciphering complex international laws, and help companies take informed, proactive measures to mitigate potential legal risks.

Today’s global business environment demands a diligent, proactive, and informed approach from UAE-based multinationals. Only through this approach can they effectively manage their potential legal risks, adhere to international compliance requirements, and ultimately safeguard their long-term corporate sustainability and growth.

Seek Legal Counsel

If you find yourself in need of expert legal advice or representation, don’t hesitate to contact our Head of Financial Crimes, Mohamed El Baghdady, at Habib Al Mulla & Partners at Our team specializes in navigating the complex landscape of financial crimes and international compliance, offering comprehensive, innovative, and bespoke legal solutions to our clients.

The firm’s Financial Crimes and Compliance practice provides a diverse range of services, including conducting thorough internal investigations, drafting and implementing robust compliance policies, and developing strategic defense measures for clients involved in financial crime investigations or litigation.

Additionally, we have an in-depth understanding of both local and international regulations. This knowledge enables us to assist UAE-based multinational companies in understanding, managing, and mitigating the risks associated with these complex laws.

Equipped with a wealth of experience and a comprehensive understanding of both local and international law, our team is fully committed to helping you navigate the dynamic field of cybercrime, maintaining compliance, and safeguarding your corporate reputation in an increasingly interconnected global business environment.


Mohamed El Khatib

Principal Partner – Head of Disputes

Mohamed ElBaghdady

Senior Associate

Marwan Alnooryani

Senior Associate

Basem Ehab


Kholoud Hafez


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